Молодежный инновационный вестникМолодежный инновационный вестник2415-7805Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Воронежский государственный медицинский университет имени Н.Н. Бурденко" Министерства здравоохранения Российской Федерации6179Assessment of students' external respiration parametersSergeevaAnastasiya Evgenevnaanastyasia.1999@yandex.ruhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3790-85361512202092S66683011202008122020Copyright © 2022, Sergeeva A.E.2022<p>Relevance. Respiratory tract diseases are very common diseases, therefore, early diagnosis of lung diseases is relevant. Breathing is the main life process that is interconnected with all systems and organs of the human body. The conditions of educational activity, social status, lifestyle of students distinguish them from all other strata of the population. Strengthening the educational process and insufficient physical activity negatively affect the functional capabilities of the body of students.<br />The aim of the research is to study the parameters of the students' external respiration system using a computer spirometer Spiro-Spectrum.<br />Methods. Using a computer spirometer "Spiro-Spectrum" (LLC "Neurosoft", Russian Federation, Ivanovo), the parameters of external respiration were determined in 40 volunteer students of the Faculty of Medicine and Biology of Voronezh State University (25 girls and 15 boys).<br />Results. It was found that the indicators of VC, FVC, FEV1 of the examined students corresponded to the age norm, and the indicators of PIC and MVL were below the norm.<br />Conclusion. Assessment of indicators of the respiratory system of student youth testifies to the wide variability of individual parameters of external respiration of students. The MVL index according to our research is below the norm, which may reflect a decrease in the limiting capabilities of the external respiration system of the examined students.</p>spirometrypersonexternal respirationfunctional state parameterspulmonary volumesstudentsспирометриячеловеквнешнее дыханиепараметры функционального состояниялегочные объемыстуденты<p>Relevance. Multifunctional tests allow assessing the general condition of the body and its reserve capabilities. A variety of functional tests, tests, as well as self-control make it possible to more accurately assess the functional state of the body and to engage in the preservation and strengthening of health in a timely manner. The relevance of the study is due to the fact that respiratory diseases are very frequent diseases, therefore, early diagnosis of lung diseases is relevant. [1,2].<br />Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study was to study the characteristics of the respiratory system of students of Voronezh State University.<br />Research methods. The study involved 40 volunteer students of the Faculty of Medicine and Biology of Voronezh State University (25 girls and 15 boys). The age of the subjects was 19.4 0.4 years (from 17 to 24 years).<br />A spirometer "Spiro-Spectrum" (LLC "Neurosoft", Russian Federation, Ivanovo) was used to measure lung volumes. The indices of the forced vital capacity of the lungs (FVC), vital capacity of the lungs (VC), peak volumetric expiratory flow (POS), maximum ventilation of the lungs (MBL), and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) were recorded. Statistical processing was carried out using the Microsoft Office Excel package. The work was carried out in the laboratory of electrophysiology named after prof. A.I. Lakomkin, Faculty of Medicine and Biology, Voronezh State University<br />The examined students were asked to perform three functional tests: test "calm breathing"; "forced expiration" test, "maximum lung ventilation" test.<br />Before starting each test, the subjects were explained the procedure for performing the test. Each test was run 3 times. The tests were carried out with informing students about the goals and content of research work, received consent to conduct examinations and with the implementation of all principles of biomedical ethics. [3].<br />Results. The indicators of the functional state of the respiratory system were assessed. Their arithmetic means and standard data for a healthy person.<br />The results of the study showed that the individual values of the vital capacity of the lungs in young men ranged from 3.56 L to 6.27 L and averaged 4.99 0.02 L, which corresponds to the normative data (4.476.3 L).<br />The indicator of the forced vital capacity of the lungs of young men is in the range from 3 to 6.53 liters. The average value of this indicator was 4.59 0.61, which corresponds to the norm (4.27-5.54 l).<br />Male peak volumetric velocity range: 3.56 L to 7.64 L. The average value of this indicator was 6.07 0.31 l, which is below the age norm (8.9710.8 l).<br />Forced expiratory volume in the first second of the lungs of young men in the range from 2.93 to 5.46 liters. The average value of this indicator was 4.08 0.45 l, which corresponds to the norm (3.71-5.0 l). The next indicator - the maximum ventilation of the lungs - in young men in the range from 35 to 49 liters. The average value of this indicator was 38.27 0.29, which is below the norm (40-60 liters).<br />Thus, the research data showed that the parameters of external respiration: VC, FVC, FEV1 in the examined male students correspond to the standards of these indicators for a healthy person. And the indicators of maximum ventilation of the lungs and peak volumetric velocity are below normal for a healthy person.<br />Among female students of this age group, individual indicators of VC changed in a rather wide range: from 2.06 to 4.97 l, and the average value of vital capacity of the lungs was 2.82 0.31 l, which corresponds to the norm (norm 2.354.53 l).<br />The indicator of the forced vital capacity of the lungs of girls in the range from 1.57 to 5.07 liters. The average value of this indicator was 3.96 0.09 L, which corresponds to the age norm (norm 3.32-4.33).<br />The range of variation of the values of the peak volumetric velocity of girls: from 1.93 l to 7.39 l. The average value of this indicator was 4.74 0.79 l, which is below the age norm (6.679.04 l).<br />The indicator of forced expiratory volume in the first second of girls' lungs ranges from 1.65 to 3.76 liters. The average value of this indicator was 2.98 0.17, which corresponds to the norm (2.9-3.77 l). Individual values of the maximum ventilation of the lungs of girls in the range from 33.3 to 41.3 liters. The average value of this indicator is 35.78 1.96 l, which is below the norm (46-64 l).<br />Discussion. As a result, the analysis data indicate that the characteristics of external respiration (VC, FVC, FEV1) in the examined students of the Faculty of Medicine and Biology of Voronezh State University correspond to the age norm, and the indicators of maximum lung ventilation and peak volumetric velocity are below the standard values.<br />In order to identify smokers and nonsmokers, a survey of the surveyed students was conducted. According to the survey results, there were 15 smokers (10 girls and 5 boys) and 25 non-smokers (15 girls and 10 boys) students in the surveyed group.<br />The results of the survey showed that among the surveyed 33.3% of boys and 40% of girls smoke among students. For the first time, 53% of boys and 44% of girls tried smoking before the age of 18, and 47% of boys and 56% of girls at the age of over 18. In 10% of girls, smoking became a habit. Boys smoke on average 2.3 - 5.4 years. Girls' smoking experience is 2.3 - 4.5 years.<br />We carried out a comparative study of the characteristics of the function of external respiration in the groups of smoking and non-smoking students.<br />The value of VC indicates the highest area of the respiratory surface of the lungs [1]. From the data that were presented in table 2, you can see that in all surveyed groups, VC was within the normal range. It was found that in groups of smoking students the indicator is moderately reduced than in groups of nonsmokers.<br />The FVC value indicates the patency of the airways. In the surveyed students, the value of FVC corresponded to the age norm, but in the smoking students (both boys and girls) it was lower than that of nonsmokers.<br />The FEV1 parameter is used to assess intrathoracic obstructive disorders [4]. In the surveyed students, the value of FEV1 also corresponded to the age norm, but among smoking students (both boys and girls) it was lower than among nonsmokers.<br />To characterize multifunctional disorders of the respiratory apparatus, the PIC was determined. It was found that the average value of this indicator was higher among non-smoking students. Compared to the age norm, this indicator was moderately reduced in all surveyed students.<br />It was found that non-smoking students had an average MVL higher than smoking students.<br />Conclusion. Assessment of the indicators of the respiratory system of student youth made it possible to come to the conclusion that the indicators of VC, FVC, FEV1 of the studied students are within the normal range, and the indicators of PIC and MVL are below normal. These indicators are characteristic both for groups of smokers and nonsmokers, and for groups formed by gender.<br />Assessment of indicators of the respiratory system of student youth testifies to the wide variability of individual parameters of external respiration of students. The MVL index according to our research is below the norm, which may reflect a decrease in the limiting capabilities of the external respiration system of the examined students.</p>[1.Архипов В.В. Контроль над бронхиальной астмой в России: результаты многоцентрового наблюдательного исследования НИКА / В.В.Архипов, Е.В. Григорьева, Е.В. Гавришина // Пульмонология. – 20011. - № 6. – С. 87-93.][2.Величковский Б.Т. Экологическая пульмонология. Роль свободнорадикальных процессов / Б.Е.Величковский. – Екатеринбург: ЕМНЦ, 2003.][3.Игнатова Г.Л. Выявление распространённости хронической обструктивной болезни легких среди лиц молодого возраста / Г.Л. Игнатова, И.А.Захарова // Пульмонология. – 2014.-№1. – 48-51 с.][4.Давидовская Е.И. Спирометрия сегодня: как использовать новые возможности и избежать старых ошибок / Е.И. Давидовская, И.А. Маничев, В.Г. Щербицкий // Медицина. - 2008.- №4. – С.94-97.][5.Давыдченко С.В. Исследование вентиляционной функции лёгких в клинической практике: метод рекомбинации / С.В. Давыдченко, А. А. Бова.- Минск: БГМУ, 2007. – 112 с.]