• Authors: Selivanova T.D.1, Kryuchkova A.V.2, Semynina N.M.2, Gridneva L.G.2, Panina O.A.2
  • Affiliations:
    1. Unicipal budgetary educational institution secondary general education «School with in-depth study of individual subjects No. 1», Voronezh, Russia
    2. Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko
  • Pages: 182-184
  • URL: https://www.new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/8904

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The article presents the evolution of domestic nursing in the historical aspect from the first prototypes to the present day. The issue of the emergence and development of active women's ministry and assistance to those in need in Russia, for which the prototype was the examples of communities of sisters of mercy in the West, is highlighted. The main purpose of the article is to familiarize with the history of nursing in Russia.

Full Text

Nursing is an important part of medical evolution, being at the same time one of their oldest, but also at the same time a young profession. Nurses play an important role in treating patients, maintaining their health and preventing diseases. They must have a high level of professional qualifications and skills. People who can take care of health or improve it have always been very important to society.
Only a small part of the information about the activities of nurses in Russia has reached our days. Since ancient times, a large role in the care of the sick belongs to Orthodox monasteries, in which assistance was provided in almshouses for lepers (1551). Since ancient times, Orthodox monasteries have played an important role in the care of the sick, and the first hospital was built in the Trinity Monastery in 1618.
In 1728, Peter I created the "Medical College", which introduced staff units for patient care. By the middle of the XVII century, civilian hospitals also began to spread staff to help patients.
Half a century later, the head of the Moscow Educational Home introduced the idea of guardianship over patients from the hospital for poor widows, for whom houses were built next to the hospital and cash payments were relied on. Then the idea of widows' houses reached St. Petersburg. The duties of widows working with patients included monitoring the order in the fees, maintaining cleanliness around the patients, teaching hygiene rules, monitoring the distribution of food and medicines to patients. Widows were also responsible for teaching elementary techniques for providing emergency care to patients, helping doctors with various manipulations [1].
In 1818, the State Nursing Service was established, which trained nurses in hospitals to care for the hygiene and sanitation of patients and held a full-time position in hospitals. Until the middle of the XIX century, widowed sisters were the only form of professional participation of women in nursing in Russia.
In Russia, in March 1844, the first community of sisters of mercy was opened, which was engaged in caring for the sick and needy. In 1873, it was renamed "Holy Trinity". Young girls and widows up to 40 years old were accepted into the community, who were trained by doctors and received knowledge about the rules of patient care, wound dressing and pharmacology. The first year in the community was considered a trial, during which the sisters could communicate with patients. If they were physically strong, disciplined and passed this deadline, then they were considered ready to work. To become full members of the community, women had to take an oath.
The famous surgeon N.I. Pirogov often visited the community and expressed the opinion that women are best suited to take care of the sick and needy. The work of the sisters of Mercy in Moscow and St. Petersburg was so successful that they began to engage in charitable activities throughout Russia. During the Crimean War in 1853-1856, their work acquired special significance.
N.I. Pirogov proposed a new system of classification of nurses according to their functional responsibilities. Now the sisters were divided into attendants, dressings, hostesses and sisters working with medicines. He also proposed algorithms that increased the speed and efficiency of the sisters' work tenfold.
Thanks to this, the work of the sisters became so successful and timely that the committee of the Holy Cross Community awarded them a gilded cross for their merits. 158 sisters of mercy were awarded this award.
A century after that, in 1918, the Soviet Red Cross received the legal rights of a public organization thanks to a decree issued by the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR. This allowed the organization to more effectively provide assistance to those in need in various crisis situations.
In 1922, the First All-Russian Congress of Nurses was held, at which various types of nursing activities were highlighted: therapeutic, social, as well as nurses caring for children and mothers.
In 1926, at the Second All-Russian Conference on Secondary Medical Education, it was decided to create unified medical colleges, replacing disparate medical colleges and courses.
In 1927, the Nurses Act was passed, which defined the duties of nurses to care for patients and established their professional status.
The main task of nurses is to help patients. To become a part of an important profession, nursing has gone through many stages of development, starting with working in widows' homes and ending with education at medical universities.
Since 1991, faculties of medical education have begun to appear in institutes and academies, which continue to develop to this day. Now the training of a nurse is available in the main universities of all cities, as well as at the level of polytechnic institutes.
Nurses play an important role in the healthcare system, providing care to patients in various medical institutions. They take care of the sick and help them recover from illness or injury. Currently, nurses are an integral part of the medical system and are in demand all over the world [2].
Since 1994, the Russian Association of Nurses has been participating in the work of the International Council of Nurses.
Currently, university nursing education is the highest level of education in this field. To receive this education, nurses go through a difficult training path, including administrative work. Special programs have been created for the faculties of nursing education, which include new disciplines to improve the quality of education and work. These disciplines include the concept of nursing, regulation and management of nursing, management psychology, legislation and economics of medicine, as well as pedagogy.
Thanks to the increase in the level of education, the healthcare system receives specialists with a higher level of knowledge who can solve the tasks facing medical institutions.


About the authors

Tatiana Dmitrievna Selivanova

Unicipal budgetary educational institution secondary general education «School with in-depth study of individual subjects No. 1», Voronezh, Russia

Email: ninaselivanova@rambler.ru

a student of the 11th grade

Russian Federation, 394077, Voronezh, Vladimir Nevsky str., 75.

Anna Vasilyevna Kryuchkova

Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko

Email: ann1059@yandex.ru

Associate Professor, Director of the Institute of Nursing

Russian Federation, 394036, Russia, Voronezh, st. Student, 10

Natalia Mikhailovna Semynina

Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko

Email: natala-sem@mail.ru

Associate Professor of the Department of Organization of Nursing

Russian Federation, 394036, Russia, Voronezh, st. Student, 10

Larisa Grigoryevna Gridneva

Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko

Email: grilagrig@gmail.com

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Assistant, Department of Nursing Organization

Russian Federation, 394036, Russia, Voronezh, st. Student, 10

Olga Alekseevna Panina

Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko

Author for correspondence.
Email: media01@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7351-3638
SPIN-code: 5865-1257

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Assistant, Department of Nursing Organization

Russian Federation, 394036, Russia, Voronezh, st. Student, 10


  1. Волков И.К. Сестринское дело в России (исторический очерк) / И.К. Волков // Медицинская сестра. - 2009. - №4. – С.7-9
  2. Перова Е.Ю. Идеи милосердия в профессиональной деятельности в России ХIХ-ХХ веков / Е.Ю. Петров // Вестник Московского государственного лингвистического университета. Гуманитарные науки. - 2017. - №7. – С.12-15

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