Outstanding Doctors of Russia: Diakonov Pyotr Ivanovich

  • Authors: Utina S.M.1
  • Affiliations:
    1. Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N.Burdenko
  • Pages: 221-223
  • URL: https://www.new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/8815

Cite item


Pyotr Ivanovich Dyakonov is a native of the Orel province, a representative of the Russian professorship, a doctor, a surgeon, a resident professor. He had a wide range of natural science interests, but devoted exceptional attention to topographic anatomy, introduced a large number of innovative operations and operational methods used in medicine to this day. P.I. Diakonov also intensively participated in the public life of the medical society, took part in natural science congresses and was actively published in journals, was a wonderful leader and a sensitive mentor for his students. It is also impossible to ignore the active social activity of a doctor associated with assessing the situation among the population concerning medical aspects and writing extensive research articles on these occasions, which were of great importance to the scientific medical community both then and at the moment of the development of modern medicine. It is also worth mentioning the direct practical significance of the developments of Pyotr Ivanovich Dyakonov in relation to domestic surgery and the current achievements of medicine, for the reason that its foundation was laid by him-one of the outstanding surgeons-innovators.

Full Text

Pyotr Ivanovich Diakonov (1855-1908) was a surgeon, Doctor of Medical Sciences, professor of the Moscow State Academy of Sciences. He came from an ancient noble family. He lived in Orel for a total of twenty years. Pyotr Ivanovich was born in the Orel region on 02.07.1855. According to the confirmed documents of the archive fund of the Orel region, he studied at the provincial classical gymnasium in 1865-1871.
At the age of 16, due to the completion of the gymnasium, Pyotr Ivanovich went to St. Petersburg to enter the Medical and Surgical Academy. And so it happened. As a student, he had a connection with the narodnik movement, because of which, later, he was arrested more than once and sent into exile to Veliky Ustyug. But as a selfless participant in the Russian-Turkish war, the main ranks of the educational institution allowed Peter Ivanovich to complete his studies at the Medical and Surgical Academy. After graduating from this educational institution, Deakonov served for three years as a zemstvo physician in the Bolkhovsky district of the Oryol province and was a resident at the Oryol hospital. He was noticed by the head doctor of the hospital as a specialist with outstanding qualities, a lot of enthusiasm and diligence in relation to his work, thanks to which he received an excellent recommendation. It was in this Russian city-Orel- that Pyotr Ivanovich Diakonov first published research papers.{1}
Then, arriving in Moscow, Diakonov first worked as a city sanitary doctor, after which he got a job in an eye hospital. The doctor's interest in public problems of medicine brought him closer to writing a dissertation on statistics of blindness among the Russian population. However, surgery was not inferior in importance in the life of Pyotr Ivanovich -so you can say, mentioning the fact that the doctor willingly accepted the offer of Professor A.A.Bobrov to transfer to the Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy of Moscow University. At first, Deacons held assistant positions at the department, but very soon he also held managerial positions. At the same time, Pyotr Ivanovich did not suspend surgical activities in Moscow hospitals and zemstvo hospitals of the province. Named Professor of Surgery P.I.Diakonov became in 1893, as well as the head of the Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy. Against the background of such significant achievements, Pyotr Ivanovich remained an ordinary clinical surgeon, working at the Basmanny Hospital, the children's clinic of Moscow University, the surgical clinic of the Sisters of Mercy community.{2}
Very soon, in 1901, by a general vote, Pyotr Ivanovich Dyakonov was elected to the post of director of the hospital surgical clinic of Moscow University, where he worked until the end of his life. The professionalism of the brilliant surgeon Diakonov was expressed in the creation of a large number of scientific papers, many of which are actively used as fundamental to this day by surgeons around the world. For example, works on asepsis and antiseptics-P.I. Diakonov introduced the most correct comparison of these principles-aseptic-as the main, dominant, and antiseptic, as a side, secondary. The surgeon also dealt with the problems of anesthesia, conducting studies on animals and deducing the formed precautions for violations of the regulation of the cardiovascular system during chloroform anesthesia. Diakonov gave his preference to general anesthesia. In symbiosis with his students, Pyotr Ivanovich actively studied and made a great scientific contribution to the developing subsections of surgery-pediatric and biliary tract. Against this background, he was the first in Russia to use his own technique of cholecystectomy-tightly sewing up the abdominal cavity. And this is not all of Diakonov's innovative techniques and operations! For example, the method of operation of hernias of the white line of the abdomen, plastic umbilical hernias, the method of circular excision of the rectal mucosa in hemorrhoids, the original access of Diakonov to the organs of the subdiaphragmatic space. But this list of innovative surgical manipulations is far from complete! Here are some more examples-he was the first to perform operations for chronic pleural empyema, used the method of stitching the kidney with its displacement, a modified version of gastrostomy, an innovative incision during neck operations, was the first in Russia to perform a bilateral cervical sympathectomy due to basedova disease and a successful operation for diaphragmatic hernia, the first to try to resect the esophagus extrapleural, and also developed ligature-free appendectomy method.{3}
It is also important to add about P.I. Dyakonov's interest in the difficulties of postoperative nursing of patients. He pointed out the need for intensive treatment of these patients, reduction of bed rest periods, introduction of early movement of patients. Among other things, the doctor dealt with the formation of Russian plastic surgery and transplantology. Pyotr Ivanovich showed great perseverance to bone tissue transplants and thoroughly investigated the difficulties of rhinoplasty. In 1891, he proposed his own innovative, but at the same time simple operation-the reconstruction of the bone skeleton of the nose, which in the future was successfully used by Russian surgeons.
But the merits of the outstanding surgeon Pyotr Ivanovich Dyakonov do not end there either -he introduced all kinds of skin transplantation methods, even designed his own unique device that greatly facilitated the taking of transplants for subsequent transplantation, justified and used in practice the method of replenishing the paralyzed deltoid trapezius muscle. In addition to everything, the great surgeon improved a number of surgical instruments: craniotomy chisels, knives for taking skin flaps, modified a saw for cutting out a bone flap, and much more. Pyotr Ivanovich presented a synthetic larynx of his own design, an aluminum gastrostomy tube and a rectal flap mirror. Pyotr Ivanovich raised a huge research school, which included future famous surgeons and talented anatomists. Professor, doctor, surgeon P.I. Dyakonov was known and deeply respected by many Russian doctors. Russian Russian Zemstvo medicine, he always defended the radical concept of Russian zemstvo medicine, actively participated in the activities of the Pirogov community and often spoke at its congresses, and was also listed as the chairman of the Society of Russian Surgeons. Since 1987, with the filing of Diakonov, the journal "Surgery" began to be published, and since 1903, an essay about the work of a hospital surgical clinic-15 volumes were published. Based on this, it can be concluded that Pyotr Ivanovich paid close attention to the possibility of transferring scientific experience to future doctors, surgeons, anatomists, through journalism and scientific literature.{4}
The contribution of this outstanding man is difficult to assess with all its magnitude, based on how versatile and extensive are his original developments, unique methods, innovative operating principles, as well as the improvement of surgical instruments. In addition, Pyotr Ivanovich was a sensitive mentor, a fair leader and a devoted scientist. Pyotr Ivanovich not only painstakingly "collected" his own knowledge, but also willingly shared it with his students, colleagues, actively published and published in the journal to present and increase the scientific experience of all generations of surgeons. It is impossible not to notice the fact that Deakonov did not lose sight of the social aspects concerning the medical point of view of the problem, analyzed and suggested ways to solve them, and also attracted the attention of the entire medical community to them. And, probably, it is worth noting important features-humanity, tolerance, reverence of the great surgeon towards his patients, which indicates the subtle mental organization of this outstanding Russian surgeon-Pyotr Ivanovich Dyakonov.


About the authors

Sofya Mikhailovna Utina

Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N.Burdenko

Author for correspondence.
Email: sofya.utina@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0009-0006-3571-745X

student of the 2nd years of the Faculty of the General Medicine

Russian Federation, 394036, Voronezh, Studentskaya str., 10.


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