• Authors: Krasova M.E.1, Pogorelova E.I.2, Panina O.A.3
  • Affiliations:
    1. Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko" of the Ministry of Health of Russia
    2. Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Voronezh State University»
    3. Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N. Burdenko» of the Ministry of Health of Russia
  • Pages: 102-103
  • URL:

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The article presents data obtained as a result of studying archival documents on the origin and development of continuing medical education in pediatrics from pre-revolutionary Russia to the present day. The article reflects the scientific, practical and pedagogical activities of the great pediatrician, scientist G.N. Spiransky, who is the founder of the Department of Pediatrics of the Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education.

Full Text

Continuing professional education is an important factor that allows a specialist to maintain the necessary professional level throughout his entire career.
February 20, 2023 marked the 150th anniversary of the birth of the outstanding Russian pediatrician and creator of the maternity and childhood care system, G.N. Speransky. He was born into an intelligent family. His father is Nestor Mikhailovich Speransky, his mother is Alexandra Egorovna Speranskaya nee Znamenskaya. A relative was Mikhail Alekseevich Speransky, the archpriest of the Church of St. Ermolai on Sadovaya Street in Moscow, so all family members were believers. N.F. Filatov had a great influence on the formation of G.N. Spiransky. Being his student and relative, back in his student years, G.N. Spiransky often visited N.F. Filatov's dacha. In His memoirs he wrote: "Neil Fedorovich seemed to me a very harsh man. This impression dissipated after a year and a half, when I had to visit him often at his dacha in Kuntsevo" [1].
Georgy Nesterovich began his professional career as a pediatrician, consultant physician for children's diseases at the A.A. Abrikosova maternity hospital. Then he became the chief physician of the first consultation in Moscow for newborns and young children. In those years, infant mortality was very high, so he pays great attention to early childhood in his professional career and on November 2, 1910, G.N. Spiransky opened a small hospital for sick children from birth to 2 years on Malaya Dmitrovka with charitable funds.
A "Nursing home" is being created on Presnya. He actively works in the Moscow Society of Pediatric Doctors and the Moscow Society for Combating Child Mortality.
The most intensive work of G.N. Spiransky begins in May 1917, when a special commission to combat child mortality was elected at a meeting of the Society of pediatric physicians. This commission was headed by G.N. Speransky. In the same year, the commission approved the regulations on children's institutions, including the reorganization of the Foundling Home. And after 1 year, in 1918, the Moscow Orphanage was reorganized into a Baby Protection House on the initiative of the head of the Department of Mother and Baby Protection of the People's Commissariat of Health V. P. Lebedeva. Thanks to a number of reforms, the Orphanage first turned into a baby protection house, then into the State Research Institute for Maternity and Infancy Protection (GNIOMM), then the Institute of Pediatrics. It was here in 1925 that the first Department of Pathology of early age was organized under the leadership of G.N. Speransky. When G. N. Speransky created the department, he understood that the most important thing was to teach doctors[2]. He who stood at the origins and laid the foundation for continuous training of doctors. This department is considered one of the first departments of postgraduate education of pediatricians.
Mira Markovna Raits recalled: "The department for healthy children was a huge hall, in which 100 children's cradles were placed, closed with a gauze canopy. At the entrance to the "ward" there was a mountain of mattresses, which were spread out at night by nursing mothers (they also took care of orphans) on the floor among the cots."
Since 1919, theoretical and practical classes for pediatricians have been held in the departments of the house. The number of doctors grew every year. In 1921, the house became the central institution for the training of doctors-specialists in the protection of motherhood and childhood.
In order to increase the knowledge and education of pediatricians in the study of the causes of high morbidity of infants and young children back in 1914, G.N. Speransky founded the journal of scientific works "Materials for the Study of young children". The publication of the magazine took place in the printing house of I.D. Sytin for free - at the expense of assistance to the hospital. This magazine was not published in the early years of Soviet power, and since 1922, at the insistence of Georgy Nesterovich and the decision of the People's Commissariat of Health of the RSFSR, the magazine resumed its work. This is the journal of Pediatrics, which today bears his name.
In 1932, the departments of the GNIIOMM were transferred to the Central Institute of Advanced Medical Training (CIUV). G.N. Speransky left the position of director of the GNIIOMM, remaining professor and head of the Department of Pediatrics of the Institute, and heads the Department of Pediatrics of the CIUV. Until 1948, the department operated on the basis of GNIIOMM. Therefore, 1932 is the year of birth of the Department of Pediatrics of the CIU. G.N. Speransky heads the department until retirement in 1961 – 29 years. G. N. Speransky organized Friday conferences on the basis of the 9th Clinical city Hospital (KGB named after G.N. Speransky). G.N. Speransky paid great attention to the issues of feeding, rehabilitation, hardening. Under the leadership of G.N. Speransky worked Zvyagintseva S.G., the author of the world-famous first monograph on bronchial asthma and the author of the famous "Zvyagintseva powders" (euphyllin, diphedrol, ephedrine), Professors A.S. Rosenthal, I.V. Zimbler, T.S. Sokolov. Yuri Evgenievich Veltischev worked at this department for 7 years, who together with M.S. Ignatova wrote the world's first monograph on pediatric nephrology. Throughout the existence of the department, for the entire 90-year history, it was headed by only 6 people. From 1961 to 1966, the department was headed by Professor R.L. Hamburg, an excellent clinician, a well—known pediatrician-cardiologist and teacher. A special contribution to the development of the department was made by Professor M.P. Matveev, a well-known pediatrician, nephrologist, who was its head for 17 years. In 1983-1984, the department was headed by Professor Georgy Iosifovich Klayshevich, a highly qualified pediatrician-cardiologist and an excellent teacher. Professor G.I. Klayshevich was at the origins of the organization of the pediatric faculty of the CIU and was the first dean of this faculty. N.A. Korovina - head of the department 1984-2008, was in charge for 24 years. Since 2008, the department has been headed by Irina Nikolaevna Zakharova, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Honored Doctor of the Russian Federation, Honorary Professor of the FSAU "NMIC of Children's Health" of the Ministry of Health of Russia. Currently, it is a department of pediatrics with a course of polyclinic pediatrics named after Academician G.N. Speransky, FGBOU DPO "Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Postgraduate Education" of the Ministry of Health of Russia. The department with such a rich and long history continues to carry out continuous medical education of pediatricians to this day, the main task of which is still to improve the professional level of pediatricians [3].


About the authors

Maria Evgenievna Krasova

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko" of the Ministry of Health of Russia


5th year student of the Faculty of Medicine, L-502

Russian Federation, 10, Studencheskaya st., Voronezh,394036 Russia

Elena Ivanovna Pogorelova

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Voronezh State University»

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6667-162X

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Medical Disciplines

Russian Federation, 1, Universitetskaya pl., Voronezh,394018,Russia

Olga Alekseevna Panina

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N. Burdenko» of the Ministry of Health of Russia

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7351-3638
SPIN-code: 5865-1257

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Assistant, Department of Phthisiology

Russian Federation, 10 Studentskaya str., Voronezh, 394036, Russia


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  2. Богданова В.А., Леднева В.С., Панина О.А. Детский доктор мира / В.А. Богданова, В.С. Леднева, О.А. Панина // Молодежный инновационный вестник. – 2019. -Т.8, № S1. – C.41-42.
  3. Бабченко Е.С., Жукова И.Э., Панина О.А. Личность врача в истории медицины / Е.С. Бабченко, И.Э. Жукова, О.А. Панина // Молодежный инновационный вестник. – 2019. -Т.8, № S1. – C.150.

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