I. E. Dуadkovsky - a Progressive Thinker of His Time

  • Authors: Turisheva V.A.1, Makhinova O.V.1
  • Affiliations:
    1. Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko
  • Pages: 215-217
  • URL: https://www.new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/8631

Cite item


Target.  To get acquainted with the life and work of I.E.  Dyadkovsky.  Consider the relevance and significance of the work of a scientist for medicine. 

Methods.  The general scientific method of research was used in the work. 

Results.  Iustin Evdokimovich Dyadkovsky is an ordinaryprofessor at Moscow University, a therapist who was famous for his deep knowledge in various fields of science, which allowedhim to make his progressive medical conclusions.  Crowds of students came to his lectures on pathology, he was personallyacquainted with great writers and deservedly remains an outstanding scientist in the history of medicine. 

Conclusion.  The study of the works of Dyadkovsky I.E.  is of great importance for medical students, allows you to trace the evolution of ideas about human health, from the 19th century to the present day. 

Full Text

In the history of medicine, there are many famous and outstanding scientists, people who are truly unique and multifaceted. Justin Evdokimovich Dyadkovsky, a Russian therapist, pharmacologist, professor at the Imperial Moscow University, was just such a person. He was an excellent connoisseur of botany, general pathology, general therapy, pharmacology, and mineralogy. He never let up his desire for knowledge. In addition to medicine, he was engaged in history, philosophy, theological works, and was also fluent in German, English, Italian, and French. He had a special passion for the Greek and Latin languages. After all, the centuries-old development of medical knowledge in written and oral form was carried out mainly in Latin, which absorbed the rich heritage of the Greek language. Iustin Evdokimovich believed that knowledge of these languages ​​is extremely important and necessary for a doctor.
His bright and eventful life often intertwined with the fate of famous writers of that time. For example, for some time he was assisted by M. A. Dostoevsky, the father of the world-famous Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky. Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol often turned to Dyadkovsky for advice and help, and in 1841 in Pyatigorsk he personally met with Lermontov, they discussed Byron all evening and read poetry. In the future, the death of M. Yu. Lermontov will be a strong shock for Dyadkovsky. The outstanding doctor was also acquainted with P. Ya. Chaadaev, V. G. Belinsky, N. V. Stankevich, D. V. Venevitinov, P. S. Mochalov, M. S. Shchepkin and other prominent figures of Russian society in the 1830s years.
Possessing a unique memory, Dyadkovsky quickly mastered languages, but his love for Latin was not only a tribute to his profession, but also a sincere admiration for this language, which was the basis for all the others. He liked to read literature that interested him in her native language. In 1816, Justin Evdokimovich Dyadkovsky even defended his dissertation in Latin. His work was called “De modo, quo agunt medicamenta in corpus humanum” (“On the way drugs act on the human body”). In his work, he put forward advanced ideas about the need to consider the body as part of its environment. Dyadkovsky believed that not only man acts on nature, but nature also contributes to the maintenance or destruction of human health [1].

The 19th century is the beginning of advanced discoveries in the field of chemistry and pharmaceuticals, medicines appeared. But at that time it was difficult to explain why they save one patient, but have no effect on another. Iustin Evdokimovich is one of the first doctors who thought about an individual approach in prescribing medicines for each individual patient. This is confirmed by the words of his dissertation: "The medicine may not be useful if we do not take into account ... climate, age, sex, lifestyle, external conditions." Thus, he took into account not only the characteristics of the human body, but also what surrounds this patient every day. Today, thanks to the latest research methods and the development of chronomedicine, we know that even the timing of a drug during the day can be important for its effectiveness.

In addition to the effect of drugs on a person, I. E. Dyadkovsky considers the effect of air, water, nutrients on a person, evaluates their healing and harmful properties. For example, he writes that the increased content of carbon dioxide in the air "steals oxygen" from the blood and makes it "indifferent, black." He talks about the importance of fresh air for the patient. “The air of large hospitals, if it is not renewed, is excessively filled with fumes of urinary and exhaled substances, which are very harmful.” In his opinion, high humidity and a high content of these substances cause "putrid diseases."

He describes in no less detail the influence of the quality of food and water. He was able to explain the phenomenon of goiter formation in mountaineers. Dyadkovsky believed that this goiter in the inhabitants of the mountains is formed due to a lack of certain minerals in the water. And although he did not know due to the absence of which element this was happening, he was right that hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and the formation of goiter arose due to the lack of a sufficient amount of iodine in the water of mountain rivers [2].

The progressiveness of the views of I. E. Dyadkovskii can hardly be overestimated. Many of his ideas lie at the origins of today's ideas about treatment, hygiene, the role of the environment in shaping health and longevity in different people.

Today it is difficult to assess what efforts science was created in the past. At present, technology helps us, with its help scientists prove or disprove their theories, scientific and technological progress accelerates discoveries and research. And at the beginning of the formation of modern ideas about a person and his health, doctors and scientists walked blindly, by feel, but this did not prevent them from building correct assumptions that formed the basis of modern medicine.



Getting acquainted with the activities and scientific work of Justin Evdokimovich Dyadkovsky, you are convinced of the power of the human mind, admire the talent and abilities that live in one person. His love for the sciences, motivation and progressive views are a role model.


About the authors

Valeria Alekseevna Turisheva

Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko

Email: lerok.turisheva@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0009-0003-7883-5817

Student of the Faculty of Pediatrics, 1st year

Russian Federation, 10 Studentskaya str., Voronezh, Russia, 394036

Olga Vladimirovna Makhinova

Voronezh State Medical University named after N. N. Burdenko

Author for correspondence.
Email: mahinovaolga@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1799-6361
SPIN-code: 2567-9521

Latin teacher

Russian Federation, 10 Studentskaya str., Voronezh, Russia, 394036


  1. Тромбах С.М. «Дядьковский, как гигиенист» / Журнал «Гигиена и Санитария», 1950 – с. 42.
  2. С. Р. Микулинский. «Материалистические идеи И. Е. Дядьковского о сущности процессов, характеризующих живое тело» / Изд. Моск. об-ва испытателей природы, М., 1951 г.

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