Doctors of the XX century, who glorified Russian medicine

  • Authors: Efimenko V.A.1
  • Affiliations:
    1. voronezh state medical university named after N.N. burdenko
  • Pages: 406-408
  • URL:

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Relevance: Nowadays, a doctor is a general specialist who knows the symptoms, knows how to properly examine, and also make a diagnosis. Medicine, as a science, is constantly developing, new diagnostic methods are being discovered, as well as ways to treat patients. The profession of a doctor was considered, and is still considered one of the most difficult professions. After all, modern doctors are constantly saving lives.
Purpose: to tell about the famous achievements of Russian scientists in the field of medicine at the turn of the second millennium.
Keywords: medicine, discovery, doctor, century, science
Methods: search, research
Medicine is the greatest science containing all the information about the human body.
Discovery is the acquisition of early knowledge that is not known to anyone.
A doctor is not a job, but a vocation, a person who is ready to devote his whole life to helping people.
A century is a period of progress.
Science is an activity focused on the development and systematization of knowledge about the activity.

Full Text

The history of Russian medicine shows that the illustrious representatives of this science were wary of the past. Russian doctors managed to create a new medicine at a time when the foundations of medicine, such as anatomy and surgery, were denied for centuries, and foreign doctors were shunned, but among them there were many specialists who sincerely served the Russian people. Ilya Ehrenburg, a publicist who bowed to the personality of Pirogov, considered his idol a model of medical humanity.
As in the field of public education, the situation in the field of health and medicine in Russia was less developed than in developed European countries. According to contemporaries, "morbidity and mortality in Russia were higher than in other European countries, especially among children," and "average life expectancy was low." A lot of effort and money was invested in health care, which led to a constant increase in the volume of medical care for the population: from 1901 to 1913, budgetary spending on medical care in the Russian Empire increased by 3.3 times. Special development was given to hospitals under local authorities - zemstvos and cities.
According to A.P. Chekhov, "the profession of a doctor is a feat. It requires dedication, a pure soul, pure thinking. Not everyone can do it. Great doctors in the history of Russian science throughout their lives showed what a real doctor should be. Danila Samoilovich experimented on himself in search of ways to fight the plague, Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov injected himself with the blood of patients with relapsing fever, Matvey Mudrov died of cholera while working in infected St. Petersburg.

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (1845-1916) is one of the founders of evolutionary embryology.
He is the discoverer of phagocytosis and intracellular digestion, the founder of the comparative pathology of inflammation, the phagocytic theory of immunity and scientific gerontology, I. I. Mechnikov achieved international fame thanks to his outstanding scientific discoveries.
Mechnikov's talent began to appear quite early. It was during this period that he met in Naples with a Russian scientist, A. O. Kovalevsky. Mechnikov and Kovalevsky shared scientific interests and were bound by ties of creative friendship for life. Their joint research led to the birth of a new field of biology - evolutionary embryology.
Pavlov Ivan Petrovich (1849 - 1936) - scientist, physiologist.
He was the founder of the science of higher nervous activity and ideas about the control of the processes of digestion and circulation, awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for research on the physiology of digestion. Pavlov's scientific work had a great influence on the development of related fields of medicine and biology, including psychiatry, and formed the main scientific schools of therapy, surgery, psychiatry and neuropathology.
Vladimir Nikitich Vinogradov (1882 -1964)
A Soviet general practitioner and cardiologist, he deeply studied the problems of early diagnosis of cancer, pulmonary and kidney tuberculosis, sepsis, as well as methods for examining gastroscopy and bronchoscopy. In 1961, he created the country's first special department for patients with myocardial infarction.
Vladimir Petrovich Filatov (1875 - 1956)
Soviet ophthalmologist who developed a method of corneal transplantation, in which the donor cornea is the transplant material. In the field of surgery, he proposed a method of skin grafting using the so-called movable circular skin trunks. He also developed a method of cadaveric cornea transplantation, introduced it into ophthalmic surgery and proposed new methods for the treatment of glaucoma and ophthalmic injuries. He also invented many ophthalmic instruments, created the theory of biostimulants and developed tissue therapy methods widely used in medicine and veterinary medicine.
Results: data collection, study of material and articles, study of the history of medicine.
Conclusion: Everyone deserves great respect, their contribution to medicine is very great and very significant for the history of medicine as a whole. Not only in Russia, but also abroad. A doctor is not a profession, not a white coat. A doctor is what you have inside, you cannot become a doctor, they need to be born.


About the authors

Valeria Alexandrovna Efimenko

voronezh state medical university named after N.N. burdenko

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1838-0588


Russian Federation, Voronezh Studentskaya 10


  1. (дата обращения 05.03.2023) (дата обращения 05.03.23)

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