THE FEAT OF PEDIATRICS IN THE DAYS OF THE SIEGE OF LENINGRAD

  • Authors: Kisser K.A.1, Pogorelova E.I.2, Panina O.A.3
  • Affiliations:
    1. Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko
    2. Voronezh State University
    3. 10 Studentskaya str., Voronezh, 394036, Russia
  • Issue: Vol 12 (2023): МАТЕРИАЛЫ VI ВСЕРОССИЙСКОЙ СТУДЕНЧЕСКОЙ НАУЧНОЙ КОНФЕРЕНЦИИ С МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫМ УЧАСТИЕМ «БЕРЕЧЬ И РАЗВИВАТЬ БЛАГОРОДНЫЕ ТРАДИЦИИ МЕДИЦИНЫ»: ВЕРНОСТЬ ПРОФЕССИИ В ИСТОРИИ МОЕЙ СТРАНЫ
  • Pages: 412-413
  • Section: HEALTHCARE ALL OVER THE WORLD
  • URL: https://www.new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/8541

Cite item

Abstract

During the days of the siege of Leningrad, pediatricians, scientists of the Leningrad Pediatric Institute, combining their knowledge, physical and mental strength, did a great job in providing medical care and preventing diseases of children of different ages. The result of which was thousands of saved children's lives, as well as gaining tremendous experience in extremely difficult conditions.

Full Text

"We suffered from many deficits, but we did not have a lack of conscience..."
Decades have passed since the Great Patriotic War. But remembering the years of the war, when the whole country rose up to defend the motherland, we understand that the victory was the result of both the common efforts of the people and an individual. This is the work in the rear, the courage and feat of soldiers on the battlefield and people of all specialties and years who helped defeat the enemy and supported the life and health of people who found themselves in difficult conditions. Of course, in such a difficult time for the people, children are especially vulnerable, whose health promotion and development has become the primary task of pediatricians [1]. Returning to this time, I would like to tell you about the feat of pediatricians during the siege of Leningrad, whose hard work helped save the lives of a large number of children and ensure their decent development.
During the blockade, the pediatric service underwent a number of changes, which was due to the following: mass evacuation of children, changes in the population at the sites, lack of medical personnel, the need to monitor the health of older children. As a result, there was a merger of children's institutions working with young children with children's polyclinics and the service of children under 16 by one pediatrician. For this purpose, theoretical training of medical personnel on the peculiarities of nursing, nutrition and diseases of infants was carried out, a census of children was conducted to establish the number and their division according to the precinct principle. The united medical institutions received children from birth to 16 years of age, monitored children's organizations (schools, kindergartens and homes), interacted with maternity institutions, women's consultations and organizations where teenagers worked. Thus, the reformation of the pediatric service increased the level of medical and preventive care provided to the population: continuity in the management of children was maintained, district pediatricians had information about the health status of newborns and children's groups, conducted preventive monitoring of adolescents working at various labor facilities [2].
Special attention in the activities of pediatricians was paid to the organization of baby food. Life during the blockade of the city proceeded in conditions of starvation, hypothermia and constant stress, which is detrimental to the health of the child, since nutrition in the kindergarten is a necessary condition for normal growth, physical and mental development. Most of the children who passed through the united polyclinics suffered from alimentary dystrophy of varying severity: from mild to severe severity. The question "How to ensure the rational nutrition of children of different ages in conditions of food shortage?" became important. The answer was received by scientists led by pediatrician and academician A.F. Tur and the head of the dairy and food division of the Leningrad Pediatric Institute S. I. Polyakova, who developed recipes for the preparation of soy, dry and condensed milk milk mixtures for children of different ages, kefir, yogurt and other products [3]. Employees of the dairy and food division, according to the instructions of scientists, conducted a number of trial brews of dairy products, eventually obtaining the necessary food. Mixtures without the addition of soy milk or with a small percentage of soy milk content were used for feeding infants, and cow's milk or saturated soy and soy kefir were used for children over a year old [4]. In addition, canteens of enhanced nutrition were organized, where not only infants, but also adolescents were sent. A medical worker was assigned to each canteen, whose duties included: monitoring the condition of the products received, preventive examinations of children with monitoring the condition of the weight curve and laboratory tests, carrying out sanitary and hygienic measures.
Thus, despite the extremely difficult living conditions during the days of the blockade, the pediatric service, represented by pediatricians, employees of the Leningrad Pediatric Faculty, united by love for a common cause, were able to increase the level of medical care provided, courageously fought for every child's life, ensuring the further development of children.

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About the authors

Ksenia Alekseevna Kisser

Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko

Author for correspondence.
Email: media01@list.ru

5th year student of the Faculty of Medicine, 528 groups

Russian Federation, 394036, Russia, Voronezh, st. Student, 10

Elena Ivanovna Pogorelova

Voronezh State University

Email: pogorelova_elena_ivanovna@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6667-162X

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Medical Disciplines

Russian Federation, 394018 Russia, Voronezh, Universitetskaya Square, 1

Olga Alekseevna Panina

10 Studentskaya str., Voronezh, 394036, Russia

Email: media01@list.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7351-3638
SPIN-code: 5865-1257

кандидат медицинских наук, ассистент, кафедра фтизиатрии

Russian Federation, 10 Studentskaya str., Voronezh, 394036, Russia

References

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  2. Богданова В.А., Леднева В.С., Панина О.А. Детский доктор мира / В.А. Богданова, В.С. Леднева, О.А. Панина // Молодежный инновационный вестник. – 2019. -Т.8, № S1. – C.41-42.
  3. Бабченко Е.С., Жукова И.Э., Панина О.А. Личность врача в истории медицины / Е.С. Бабченко, И.Э. Жукова, О.А. Панина // Молодежный инновационный вестник. – 2019. -Т.8, № S1. – C.150.
  4. Волчок С. И. Забота о детях в блокированном Ленинграде / В сб. «Вопросы педиатрии в дни блокады Ленинграда». Сборник 1. Алиментарные дистрофии и авитаминозы у детей. 1944. С. 3–8.

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