• Authors: Kasymov N.O.1, Pogorelova E.I.2, Panina O.A.1
  • Affiliations:
    1. Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko
    2. Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Voronezh State University"
  • Pages: 410-412
  • URL: https://www.new.vestnik-surgery.com/index.php/2415-7805/article/view/8540

Cite item


The article presents the main historical milestones of the formation of pediatrics in Russia as a discipline and provides biographical information about the life, pedagogical, scientific activity and work of academicians-pediatricians of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and Lenin Prize laureates

Full Text

Mastering the discipline of pediatrics, like any other medical science, begins with the study of basic literature. Despite the fact that textbooks are often outdated, but they contain the most detailed description of certain important points that are not found, for example, in modern articles and theses. But, of course, the data presented in them must be passed through the prism of critical reflection.
The profession of a pediatrician is a choice of the heart, a choice of the call of the soul, which understands the complexity and responsibility of its service [1]. The pediatrician is like a diamond, each of the facets of which has its own possibilities of influencing the development and preservation of the child's health.
Preserving the memory of historical moments and outstanding personalities in pediatrics who left their mark in history is a significant moment for the formation of a modern medical society [2]. There are iconic surnames that serve as a reference point, an example to follow not only for the current generation, but also for subsequent ones. The presented article contains materials about the life and scientific activities of major pediatricians and the formation of pediatric schools in Russia.
The purpose of this publication is to fill the existing gaps in historical and medical research by studying the local history - the history of pediatrics in Russia.
At the beginning of the article, I would like to draw attention to significant, from our point of view, moments that have a symbolic meaning. The problem of preserving the health of mother and child is a long tradition of Russian science. A number of authors turn their attention to the letter of M.V. Lomonosov, who wrote about the preservation and reproduction of the Russian people. What is the fact that during the Great Patriotic War, the Decree of the USSR government on the organization of the Academy of Medical Sciences (June 30, 1944) was published, and on June 8, the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On increasing state assistance to pregnant women, large and single mothers, on establishing the honorary title of "Mother Heroine" was issued and the institutions of the Order of "Maternal Glory". The coincidence of these two significant events is very symbolic. The war is still in full swing, and the state is already thinking about its future, which is determined by science and the younger generation at all times. Over 79 years of the Academy of Medical Sciences existence, more than 30 academicians and corresponding members have been elected to its membership from among pediatricians.
There are two Heroes of Socialist Labor among the pediatrician academicians, representatives of various schools [3].
G.N. Speransky (1873-1969) - founder (1922) and editor of the journal "Pediatrics". One of the founders of the organization of the maternity and childhood protection system in Russia. Editor and main author of the textbook "Diseases of early childhood" (1934). His research in the field of eating disorders and digestion in young children, nephrology made a huge contribution and had great practical significance, an adherent of the preventive direction of pediatrics, the organization of perinatal services and specialized maternity hospitals [4].
V.P. Bisyarina (1912-1997) was a Soviet Russian pediatrician, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, head of the Department of Pediatric Diseases of the Omsk Medical Institute, academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. She has published over 400 scientific papers, including 8 monographs, as well as textbooks and reference manuals on regional pathology in children, brucellosis, opisthorchiasis and other issues of pathology of childhood. For the training of pediatric personnel, a notable contribution to science V.P. Bisyarina was the first Siberian woman to be elected a full member (academician) of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1969).
M.S. Maslov (1885-1961) - Professor of the Military Medical Academy and the Leningrad Pediatric Medical Institute, was among the founders of the AMN, which played a major role in solving an important task facing domestic medicine -reducing child mortality. He plays a big role in the study of constitutional anomalies in children. He studied the peculiarities of metabolism in a healthy and sick child. There are more than twenty pediatric professors among the academician's students.
A number of scientists, such as G.N. Speransky, Yu.F. Dombrovskaya, A.F. Tur were awarded the Lenin Prize for substantiating ways to reduce child mortality in 1970. [5]
Yu.F. Dombrovskaya (1891-1976) academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences, Honored Scientist of the RSFSR. Author of more than 180 scientific papers. She devoted herself to the study of collagenoses, vitamin deficiency, respiratory and blood diseases. I have prepared a whole school of followers. Written by Yu.F. Dombrovskaya, D.D. Lebedev and V.I. Molchanov, "Propaedeutics of childhood diseases" has survived 5 editions (the last in 1970).
V.I. Molchanov (1868-1959) Academician of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, made a significant contribution to the study of the pathogenesis of childhood infections, one of the founders of pediatric endocrinology in our country, author of monographs on growth and development delays in children.
Alexander Fedorovich Tur (1894-1974), a student of A.N. Shkarin and M.S. Maslov, professor, academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, winner of the Lenin Prize, is one of the founders of such sections of Russian pediatrics as pediatric hematology and endocrinology, neonatology, dietetics, the use of massage and gymnastics, hardening in the rational upbringing of young children [5].
Every historical turn in pediatrics was marked by new discoveries, both in theory and in practice. A characteristic feature of pediatrics of the twentieth century is continuity, which objectively reflects the activities of scientific medical schools. The use of the historical method, the development of new scientific information, as well as familiarization with historical literature in all its diversity, opens up to medical university students and doctors the interdisciplinary nature of the discipline being studied, and also unites the history of pediatrics and humanitarian knowledge into a single alloy.


About the authors

Nikita Olegovich Kasymov

Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko

Author for correspondence.
Email: media01@list.ru

5th year student of the Faculty of Medicine, 528 group

Russian Federation, 394036, Russia, Voronezh, st. Student, 10

Elena Ivanovna Pogorelova

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Voronezh State University"

Email: pogorelova_elena_ivanovna@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6667-162X

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Medical Disciplines

Russian Federation, 394018 Russia, Voronezh, Universitetskaya square, house. 1

Olga Alekseevna Panina

Voronezh State Medical University N.N. Burdenko

Email: media01@list.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7351-3638
SPIN-code: 5865-1257

Candidate of Medical Sciences, Assistant, Department of Phthisiology

Russian Federation, 394036, Russia, Voronezh, st. Student, 10


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  5. Шабалов Н.П. Александр Федорович Тур (к столетию со дня рождения) / Н.П. Шабалов // Педиатрия. – 1994. – Т.3, №81. — С.5.

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